Chufut-Kaleh (“Jewish Fortress”). In the 1st centuries the tribe of the Alans, descendants of Scythians, settled on the Crimean peninsula. In the 6th century they were already Christians. At this time the fortifications on the plateau came into being. In 1299 the Alans were conquered by the Golden Horde and the fortress got the name Kyrk-Or (“Forty Fortifications”).
Eski Kermen (“Old Fortress”) is situated in the valley of Karalez spreading out on the table-like mount with abrupt precipices of about 30 meters high. The Eski-Kermen castle was set up at the end of the VI century. In two centuries it was destroyed by invaders. Then it had been restored and finally ruined again in the XIII century after Nogai’s raids. Among the remains of Eski — Kermen the most attractive is the Church of the Three Horse Riders. It contains mural paintings of the three saint riders with the inscription in Greek. Of great interest are the graveyards where golden decorations were unearthed.
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